Water treatment is the source of water purification through a series of water treatment equipment to meet the state water quality standards. Social production and living water is closely related to, therefore, the field of water treatment involves a very wide range of applications, constitute a large industrial applications.
Simply speaking, the “water treatment” is the physical, chemical means, the removal process of production, life does not need material. Is to apply to the specific purpose of water sedimentation, filtration, coagulation, flocculation, as well as corrosion inhibition, scale and other water conditioning process. Social production and living water. Therefore, the field of water treatment involves a very wide range of applications, constitute a large industrial applications.
Often said that water treatment include: two kinds of sewage treatment and drinking water treatment. Often used in water treatment chemicals: aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, polyacrylamide, activated carbon and a variety of media.
The effect of water treatment can be measured through the water quality standards.
In order to achieve the finished water (water of life, water for production or discharge of waste water), water quality requirements of the processing of raw water (raw water).
(1) processing of raw water for life or industrial water, known as water treatment;
Processing wastewater, then the waste water treatment. The purpose of wastewater treatment effluent discharge (discharged into water bodies or land) or re-use (see the waste water disposal, waste water reuse).
In the water recycling system and recycling of water treatment, raw water, waste water, finished water is water, the process is both to the nature of water and wastewater treatment. The water treatment also includes the processing of wastewater and sludge treatment and final disposal (see sludge treatment and disposal), and sometimes exhaust gas treatment and disposal. Water treatment methods can be summarized in three ways: ① The most commonly used to obtain the required water quality through the removal of raw water to some or all of the impurities; ② add a new ingredient in the raw water to obtain the required water quality; ③ The raw water processing does not involve the removal of impurities or add new ingredients.
Impurities in the water and the treatment of impurities in water including the backdrop of thick material, suspended solids, colloids and solutes. Thick substances such as floating in river weeds, garbage, large-scale aquatic wastewater gravel and chunk of dirt and so on. Water supply project, the coarse impurities removed by the facilities of the water intake structures, not included in the scope of water treatment.
Wastewater treatment, removal of coarse impurities are generally part of the pretreatment of water. Suspended solids and colloidal silt, algae, bacteria, viruses, and water, the original and in the treatment process, the insoluble substances. Dissolved inorganic salts, organic compounds and gases. Processing method to remove impurities in the water a lot, the scope of application of the main methods can be broadly impurities granularity to divide (Figure 1). Allowable impurities of impurities contained in the raw water and finished water vary greatly on the type and concentration, the water treatment process varies widely.
The living water (or town public water supply) in terms of raw water taken from the high-quality water source (well or well-protected water supply special reservoirs), only disinfection is the finished water; raw water taken from the general river or lake, first remove sediment and to the cloud of impurities, and then disinfected; more polluting raw water, raw water containing iron, manganese (such as some well water), the need to remove iron, manganese needed to remove organic matter and other pollutants; Domestic water quality requirements to meet the general industrial water, industrial water is sometimes necessary to further processing, such as softening, desalination and so on.
When the waste water discharge or reuse water quality requirements are lower, just use the method of screening and sedimentation to remove coarse impurities and suspended solids (often known as a handle); When requesting removal of organic matter, usually in the primary treatment biological treatment (often called secondary treatment), and disinfection; on the biological treatment of wastewater, process collectively referred to as tertiary treatment or advanced treatment, such as when the waste water discharged into water bodies need to prevent eutrophication conducted removal of nitrogen, phosphorus process belong to the tertiary treatment (see the water physical and chemical treatment). When the wastewater as a water source, the finished water quality requirements and the corresponding machining processes with the purpose may be. In theory, the modern water treatment technology can be taken from any poor-quality water system any high-quality finished water.
RO water system, water treatment agents
Using has a good synergistic effect of the compound preparation, can effectively prevent the formation of scale, micro-organisms stick body, improve the rate of desalination water production; to extend the life of the RO membrane.
Risr-RO386 special scale inhibitor
Risr-RO386 special use hinders the dirty agent
Risr-the RO387 special cleaning agent
Risr-RO387 special use washes an agent
Circulation chilled water on system
Guarantee cooling water tower, cold water machine the platform waits for equipment to be in optimum operation state, effective the group controlling the microorganism bacterium, the creation restraining scale, the corrosion taking precautions against pipeline equipment’s. Achieve the life time reducing energy consumption, prolonging equipment’s purpose. Special case for investigation works out the water treatment scheme, adopt the special field compound water treatment preparation and perfect technical service system.
Risr-668A / B The sterilization extinguishes the algae medicinal preparation
Risr-LQ512Slow eclipse anti-filthy medicinal preparation
Risr-586Equipment cleansing agent
Boiler water on treatment preparation
Adopt the compound preparation having the fine coordination treatment effect, guard against boiler corrosion and fouling,
the water quality stabilizing a boiler ensures that the boiler regularity works, reduces the boiler body consumption, prolongs whose life time.
Risr-GL668 compound boiler water treatment preparation
Risr-GL658 cleans up the jar agent
Risr-GL638 Agent alkalinity is adjusted
Lacquer house circulation water treatment preparation
The medicament belongs to compound preparation have general broad dispersing ability, the paint residue dehydration nature that the person handles is fine, the lacquer residue handling is the treatment there being no sticky time as soon as stages such as roll a shape into a ball, easy to salvage. The efficacy stabilizes upright amicable, handle face to face of the medicament environment. Can there be an effect’s guarded against a paint sticky attach the harassment in what pipeline equipment brings about, at the same time, reduce wave middle COD contents, eliminate peculiar smell, improve an environment, life time prolonging recirculating water.
Risr-TZ618A Organic paint resin dispersant (lacquer fog flocculating agent)
Risr-TZ618B suspension agent
The Waste water on treatment preparation
Adopt the rational water treatment handicraft, the depth coordinating water’s handles, water reclaims in processing water but reaching GB5084-1992, CECS61-94 using water standard to wait, to be able to cycle for a long time to be put into use, save large The amount of water on the resource.
Risr-601 environmental protection type COD special use eliminates an agent
MRisr-2688 heavy metal catches an agent
Water treatment (water treatment) on the source water or do not meet water quality requirements of water, the process of physical, chemical, biological and other methods to improve water quality.
Water treatment methods can be summarized in three ways: ① The most commonly used to obtain the required water quality through the removal of raw water to some or all of the impurities; ② add a new ingredient in the raw water to obtain the required water quality; ③ The raw water processing does not involve the removal of impurities or add new ingredients. Water softened water treatment: chemical resin, such as water softening.
Commonly used in sewage treatment technology biochemical method, the Activated Sludge Process Fixed Biofilm Processes Combined Biological Processes, etc.;
Physical chemical methods, Granular Media Filtration,, Activated Carbon Adsorption, Chemical, Precipitation, Membrane Processes;
Natural treatment method, Stabilization Ponds and Aerated or Facultative Lagoons), Constructed Wetlands
Chemical color SHINES resin treatment method. Nanofiltration membrane separation principle.
Nanofiltration membrane, also known as ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane, the Japanese scholar Otani, Toshiro had nanofiltration membrane separation principle in a concrete definition: operating pressure ≤ 1.50mPa MWCO of 200 to 1,000, of NaCl retention rate ≤ 90% The film can be regarded as the nanofiltration membrane. Nanofiltration membrane separation technology has been separated from the reverse osmosis technology to become independent of the separation between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis technology has been widely used in seawater desalination, ultra-pure water production, food industry, environmental protection and many other fields, to become an important branch in the water treatment technology.
Nanofiltration technology principle
(a) dissolution, diffusion theory: permeate was dissolved, and passed along its driving force gradient diffusion in the membrane, nanofiltration membrane surface to form a chemical equilibrium between the phases, in the form of the pass is: Energy = concentration o drip degree o impetus to make the time of a substance through the membrane must overcome the osmotic pressure.
(b) electric effect: nanofiltration membrane and electrolyte ions, the formation of electrostatic charge strength of the electrolyte salt ions, resulting in membrane ion retention rate differences, the pluralistic system with different valence state of ions, due to Road South (DONNAN ) effects, which makes the selectivity of the membrane for different ions is not the same, different ions through the membrane ratio is not the same.
Nanofiltration process reason why the ion-selective negative charged groups in the nanofiltration membrane or membrane, through electrostatic interaction, hindering the penetration of multivalent ions. The nanofiltration membrane may be the charge density of 0.5 ~ 2meq / g,.
Nanofiltration membrane separation principle
Nanofiltration membrane between RO and UF membrane, the NaCL the removal rate of 90%, almost all the solute has a high removal rate of the reverse osmosis membrane, nanofiltration membrane only on the specific solute high removal rate;
Nanofiltration membrane to remove a diameter of about 1 nanometer (nm) of solute particles, 100 to 1000 molecular weight cutoff, in the field of drinking water is mainly used for the removal of trihalomethanes intermediates, odor, color, pesticides, synthetic detergent agent, dissolved organic matter, Ca and Mg hardness composition and the evaporation residue.
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Water treatment process
Sewage treatment in general contain the following tertiary treatment: primary treatment by mechanical processing, such as the grille, sedimentation or flotation and removal of sewage contained in the stones, sand and fat, iron, manganese, oil and so on. The secondary treatment is biological treatment of pollutants in the role of microorganisms in the sewage is degraded and converted into sludge. Tertiary treatment of wastewater depth treatment, including the removal of nutrients and by chlorination, ultraviolet radiation or ozone disinfection of sewage. May, depending on the treatment goals and water quality, some of the sewage treatment process is not to contain all of the above process.
Pure water treatment processes, depending on raw water quality.
If the original water is municipal tap water, the general process is
Sand filter – activated carbon filter – softened (optional) – Security filters – reverse osmosis – Ultraviolet disinfection – water production
If the general surface water, sterilization before entering the above process and add the flocculant.
If well water is to add in addition to iron and manganese filter after sand filtration.
Catalytic micro-electrolysis technology
The technology is in the case of no electricity, the use of micro-electrolysis filler filled in the micro-electrolysis equipment to produce the “primary cells” effect for wastewater treatment. Through water, the device will be the formation of numerous potential difference of 1.2V primary batteries. Electrolyte primary battery to the wastewater discharge to the formation of the purpose of the current wastewater electrolytic oxidation and reduction treatment, in order to achieve the degradation of organic pollutants. In the processing of new eco [of OH, [H] [O], of Fe2 +, of Fe3 +, etc. can wastewater Many components occurrence of redox reactions, such as can undermine the colored wastewater colored substances in the hair color groups or contributed to the chromophore, and even chain scission, decolorizing the role; Fe2 + generated further oxidation of Fe3 + and their hydrates have a strong adsorption – flocculation activity, in particular, is generated after adding alkali to adjust pH ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide colloidal flocculant, flocculation is much higher than the general pharmaceutical hydrolysis of ferric hydroxide colloid flocculation in water dispersion of small particles, metal particles and organic macromolecules. The process has a wide range of applications, the treatment effect, low cost, short processing time and easy operation and maintenance and low power consumption, can be widely used in industrial wastewater pretreatment and depth of processing. Electrolytic micro-filler effect diagram types of wastewater: dye waste water, wastewater, pharmaceutical, wastewater, wastewater, resin wastewater, assistant wastewater, wastewater, electroplating wastewater, papermaking wastewater, starch wastewater, garlic, wastewater, landfill leachate and other industries class wastewater.
Anode: Fe – 2e → Fe2 + E, (Fe / Fe2 +) = -0.44 V.
Cathode: 2H + + 2e → H2 E (of H + / H2) = 0.00V
When the presence of oxygen, the cathode reaction is as follows:
O2 + 4H + + 4e → 2H2O E-(O2) = 1.23V
O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH-E (O2/OH-) = 0.41V
Fusion catalysts by the multi-metal alloys and high temperature microporous activated from the production, is a new dosing compacted micro electrolytic filler. Role in the electroplating wastewater, efficient removal of COD, lower chroma, biodegradability, and treatment effect of a stable and lasting, while avoiding the phenomenon of the filler in the run in the process of passivation, compaction. The filler is an important guarantee of the continuing role of micro-electrolysis reaction, has brought new vitality to the current electroplating wastewater treatment.
Mechanical handling Section
Machinery (a) processing the structures of the Section include grilles, grit chamber, primary sedimentation tanks, etc., to remove coarse particles and suspended solids for the purpose, there are two ways to deal with solid-liquid separation, the general physical law, the pollution The material isolated from wastewater, which is generally used in sewage treatment. Machinery (a) deal with all the sewage treatment process necessary works (although sometimes some process eliminates the need for early Shen pool), Urban Sewage Treatment typical BOD5 and SS removal rate of 25% and 50% respectively. Biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plant, aerated grit chamber is generally not recommended to avoid the rapid degradation of organic matter removal; in water quality characteristics of raw sewage is not conducive to nitrogen and phosphorus removal, primary sedimentation set or not and set the way need to be carefully analyzed and considered according to the follow-up process of the water quality Special Note, in order to ensure and improve the water quality of follow-up process of phosphorus removal in addition to denitrification. Another method is the application of chemical treatment, application of flocculant will be used to harm the metal flocculation and sedimentation.
Biological Wastewater Treatment
Biochemical treatment of sewage to a secondary treatment to remove non-Shen suspended solids and solubility of the biodegradable organic matter as the main purpose, the process constitutes a variety, can be divided into the activated sludge process, the AB method, the A / O, the A2 / O method, SBR, oxidation ditch, by stabilization ponds, land treatment and other treatment methods. Recently, most of the urban sewage treatment plants using activated sludge process. The principle of the biological treatment is complete the synthesis of the decomposition of organic matter and organisms by biological role, especially the role of microorganisms, organic pollutants into harmless gaseous products (CO 2), the liquid product (water) and organic-rich The solid products (microbial groups or biological sludge); excess biological sludge in the settling tank solid-liquid separation by sedimentation tanks to be removed from the purified sewage.
Wastewater biochemical treatment process, the factors that affect microbial activity matrix classes, and the environment can be divided into two categories:
A matrix class, including nutrients such as carbon-based organic compounds, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, phosphorus sources and other nutrients, as well as iron, zinc, manganese and other trace elements;, including toxic and hazardous chemicals such as phenols, benzene and other compounds, including some heavy metal ions such as copper, cadmium, lead ions.
Of Environmental impact factors:
(1) temperature. The impact of temperature on the micro-organisms is very extensive, although at a high temperature environment (50 ° C to 70 ° C) and low temperatures (-5 to 0 ° C) is also active in certain types of bacteria, but the vast majority of microorganisms in the sewage treatment The optimum growth temperature range is 20-30 ℃. Appropriate temperature range, the physiological activity of microorganisms is strong, its activity is enhanced with the increase of temperature, the better the treatment effect. Beyond this range, microbial activity variation, the biological reaction process will be affected. General, to control the reaction process the maximum and minimum limits were 35 ° C and 10 ° C.
(2) PH value. The activated sludge system with microorganisms is the most appropriate range of PH value is 6.5-8.5, acidic or too alkaline environment is not conducive to microbial survival and growth, in severe cases cause the floc destruction, the disintegration of the floc, The sharp deterioration of the treatment effect.
(3) dissolved oxygen. Aerobic bioreactor, to maintain a certain concentration of dissolved oxygen in the mixture is essential. When the dissolved oxygen in the environment than 0.3mg / l, facultative bacteria and aerobic bacteria for aerobic respiration; dissolved oxygen less than 0.2-0.3mg / l close to zero, the facultative bacteria are transferred to the repulsive oxygen breathing, the vast majority of aerobic bacteria basically stopped breathing, and some aerobic bacteria (the majority of filamentous bacteria) may also grow well, an advantage in the system often lead to sludge bulking. In general, the dissolved oxygen in the aeration tank at the outlet of about 2mg / l in order to maintain appropriate, too high an increase of energy consumption, not economically viable.
In all factors, the matrix class factors and the PH value is determined by water quality control of these factors depends mainly on the strict implementation of the daily monitoring and related regulations, laws and regulations. General urban sewage Most of these factors are not too big an impact the basic parameters can be maintained to the extent appropriate. Changes in temperature and climate, water treatment equipment off, for a ton of urban sewage treatment plants, especially the use of activated sludge process, the temperature control is difficult to implement, is not very feasible in economic and engineering. Therefore, by appropriate selection of design parameters to meet the processing requirements of the different temperature in order to achieve the goal of processing. Therefore, the main goal of process control falls on the activated sludge itself as well as by the control means to change the environmental factors, control the main task is to take appropriate measures to overcome the impact of external factors on the activated sludge system, so that it can sustained and steady play.
The key is to control the object or control parameters to achieve control of the process of biological reaction systems, which in turn is closely related to process or deal with the target.
As mentioned earlier the dissolved oxygen is a very important type of biological response and process indicator parameters, it is intuitive and more quickly reflect the operational status of the entire system, easy operation and management, installation and maintenance of instruments which are more simple, This is also the past decade, China’s new sewage treatment plant is basically realized the reason of dissolved oxygen on-site and online monitoring.
Tertiary treatment of water depth processing, now China’s sewage treatment plant was put into practical application is not. It will carry out secondary treatment water denitrification and dephosphorization treatment, activated carbon adsorption or reverse osmosis to remove the remaining pollutants in the water with ozone or chlorine disinfection to kill bacteria and viruses, and then the treated water into the in the waterway, as flush toilets, spray the streets, watering the green belt, industrial water, fire and water.
Thus, the role of the sewage treatment process is only through biological degradation transformation of the role and solid-liquid separation, will purify the sewage enrichment of pollutants to the sludge, including a processing section in the primary sludge, secondary treatment section in the remaining activated sludge and tertiary treatment of chemical sludge. These sludge contains large amounts of organic matter and pathogens, and can easily stink of corruption, it is likely to cause secondary pollution, decontamination tasks not yet completed. The sludge must be a certain amount of volume reduction, reduction and stabilization harmless disposal wells properly disposed of. Sludge treatment and disposal of the success of the wastewater treatment plant has important implications, must pay attention to. If the sludge treatment, sludge will have with the purifying effect of the effluent discharge, sewage plant will be offset. So in the actual application process, the sewage treatment process of sludge treatment is quite critical.
General methods and principles
Commonly used water treatment methods are: (a) filtration of the precipitate, (b) water softening, (c) activated carbon adsorption, (d) of deionized France, (e) of the reverse osmosis method, (f) by ultrafiltration, (g) distillation, (h) ultraviolet disinfection, (ix) Biochemistry law, and now the treatment principle and function of them this description.
Sediment filter method
The purpose of the sediment filter method will clean the water inside of suspended particulate matter or colloidal substances. Particulate matter not removed, the dialysis will water the precision filter membrane to cause damage or even to the waterway obstruction. This is the oldest and most simple of the Clean Water Act, so this step is often used in the initial treatment, water purification or in the pipeline will be more to add a few filters (filter) to remove the larger impurities. Filter types used in the filtration of suspended particulate matter, such as mesh filters, sand-like filter (such as quartz sand, etc.) or membrane filter. As long as the particle size is greater than the size of these holes will be blocked. Ion dissolved in the water, it can not be blocked off. If the filter too long without replacing or cleaning the accumulation of particulate matter in the filter will be more and more, the water flow and pressure will decrease gradually. Is to use into the water pressure and water pressure difference to determine the extent of the filter is blocked. Therefore, the filter should be regularly thrust to exclude the accumulation of impurities on the replacement filter, but also within a fixed time.
Sediment filtration have a problem worthy of attention, and accumulation of particulate matter continues to be blocked down the material surface may have the bacteria to breed and release of toxic substances through the filter, resulting in a pyrogen reaction, so must be frequently changed the filter, in principle, on the influent and effluent pressure drop increase in the previous five times, you need to replace the filter.
Water softening method
Hard water softening needs to use ion exchange, its aim is to use the cation exchange resin to exchange sodium ions of calcium and magnesium ions of hard water, in order to reduce the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions in the water. Softening of the reaction is as follows:
Of Ca2 + +2 Na-EX → Ca-EX2 +2 Na +1
Of Mg2 + +2 Na-EX → Mg-EX2 +2 Na +1
Where the EX, said ion exchange resin, ion exchange resin combination of Ca2 + and Mg2 +, was originally included in its Na + ions released.
Now available in the market ion exchange resin for the synthesis of spherical organic polymer electrolyte. Resin matrix (resin matrix) containing sodium chloride in the water softening process, sodium ions will gradually be used to run out of, then exchange the softening effect will be gradually reduced, then the need for reduction (regeneration) every fixed time to join a particular concentration of salt water, usually 10%, the reaction as follows:
Ca-EX2 +2 Na + (brine) → 2Na-EX + of Ca2 +
Mg-EX2 +2 Na + (brine) → 2Na-EX + Mg2 +
If the water treatment process does not cationic softening, reverse osmosis membrane is not only the deposition of calcium and magnesium in the body will result in less efficacy or even destroy the reverse osmosis membrane, while the patient is also easy to get hard water syndrome. The water softening device can also cause bacterial growth, so the thrust device, after a period of time is necessary thrust to prevent too many impurities adsorbed on Another noteworthy problem is the high hyponatremia, because the dialysis water softening and then restore process * timer to control the normal reduction occurs mostly in the middle of the night, this is * the valve in control, if a failure occurs, a large number of The salt water will be poured into the water, thereby causing the patient’s hyponatremia. The fully automatic sodium ion exchange with the principle of ion exchange removal of calcium and magnesium scaling ions. Containing hardness ions of the original water through the exchange inside the resin layer, water, calcium and magnesium ions, then the resin adsorption of sodium ions occur replacement, resin adsorption of the calcium, magnesium while sodium ions to enter the water, so the switch outflow of The water is to remove the hardness of the softened water.
Activated carbon is a high temperature carbonization carbonization made from wood, wood residues, fruit core, coconut shells, coal or oil bottom ash and other substances in, made after the need to be activated to heat air or water vapor. Its main role is to remove chlorine and chloramines and other molecular weight dissolved organic matter in the 60-300 Dalton. Activated carbon surface was granular, the interior is porous, there are many holes the size of the capillary the approximately 1Onm ~ lA, 1g activated carbon internal surface area up to 700-1400m2, and the capillary surface and particle surface where adsorption. The impact of activated carbon to remove organic capacity factors activated carbon area, pore size and molecular weight of the removal of organic matter and its polarity (Polarity), it is primarily * physical adsorption ability to exclude debris, after the adsorption capacity of the saturated adsorption too many impurities will fall down the pollution of downstream water quality, it is necessary to remove adsorbed impurities on timing using the thrust.
The activated carbon filter if the adsorption capacity decreased significantly, you must update. Determination of the influent and effluent TOC concentration (or the number of bacteria) is to consider the replacement of activated carbon based on one. Some of the reverse osmosis membrane poor tolerance to chlorine, so have activated carbon before the reverse osmosis treatment, so that the chlorine can be effective activated carbon adsorption, but the holes on the activated carbon adsorption of bacteria reproduced grow at the same time for the removal of large organic molecules, the effectiveness of activated carbon is limited, so must * reverse osmosis membrane is reinforced at the back.
The deionized law exclusion of inorganic ions dissolved in the water with hard water softeners, but also the principle of ion exchange resin. Using two resin – cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin. Cation exchange resin using hydrogen ions (H +) to exchange cations; anion exchange resin is the use of hydroxide ions (OH-) exchange anions, hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions combine to form neutral water, its reaction equation is as follows:
M + x + xH-Re → M-M-Rex + xH +1
A-z + zOH-Re → A-Rez + zOH-1
Equation M + x Table cation, x table tariff number, M + x cations and cation exchange resin, H-Re hydrogen ion exchange, the Az table anion, z-table tariff number, the Az and anion exchange resin combination after the release of OH-ions. Serve neutral water in the H + ions and OH-ion binding.
The adsorption capacity of these resins is exhausted, need to restore the cation exchange resin need acid to restore; the contrary, the anion is a strong base to restore. Cation exchange resin, the adhesive force of the various cations differ, the strength of the extent and relative relations are as follows:
Ba2 +> Pb2 +> Sr2 +> Ca2 +> Ni2 +> Cd2 +> CU2 +> Co2 +> Zn2 +> Mg2 +> Ag1 +> Cs1 +> K1 +> NH41 +> Na1 +> H1 +
Anion exchange resin and anion affinity strength is as follows:
S02-4 +> I-> NO3-> NO2-> Cl-> HCO3-> OH-> F-
If the anion exchange resin is depleted and not restored, the adsorption of the weakest fluoride will gradually appear in the dialysis water, resulting in rickets, osteoporosis and other bone lesions; if the cation exchange resin is consumed, the hydrogen ion also appear among the dialysis water, resulting in the increase of water acidity, so the the deionized function is valid, you need to monitor what. Generally to determine the coefficient of resistance (resistivity) of the * water quality or conductivity (conductivity). To the ion used in ion exchange resins would also cause the reproduction of bacteria causing bacteremia, which is a point worth noting.
RO can effectively remove inorganic substances dissolved in water, organic matter, bacteria, pyrogens and other particles, is the most important part of the dialysis water treatment. To understand “reverse osmosis” principle, the first interpretation of penetration (osmosis) the concept of the so-called penetration refers to the semi-permeable membrane to separate the two different concentrations of the solution, and its water solute can not be through the semipermeable membrane, the concentrations were lower party water molecules through the semipermeable membrane to reach the other side of higher concentration until the concentration of both sides of the equal so far have not reached a balance, higher concentrations gradually put pressure on the aforementioned water molecules move state will temporarily stop when the desired pressure is called osmotic pressure (osmotic pressure), if the applied force is greater than the osmotic pressure, the moisture movement in the opposite direction and the line, but also from the case of high concentrations of the flow of the low concentration, a phenomenon called “reverse osmosis reverse osmosis purification effect can be achieved the level of ions up to 90% -98% for the unit price from the (monovalent ions), to exclude rate (rejection rate) bivalent ions (divalent ions) up to about 95% -99% (to prevent molecular weight greater than 200 Galton material through).
Reverse osmosis water treatment commonly used in semi-permeable membrane material of the fiber plasma membrane (cellulosic), aromatic poly the brew amines (aromatic polyamides), polyimide or polyfuranes of helical (spiral wound) As for its structure and shape, hollow fiber type hollow fiber and tubular type (tubular). As for the advantages of the cellulose membrane in these materials is the high chlorine resistance, but in alkaline conditions (pH ≥ 8.0) or the presence of bacteria the situation, life will be shortened. The disadvantage of the polyamide is poor tolerance of chlorine and chloramines. The only problem with that kind of material is better, there is no conclusion.
If reverse osmosis does not make the pre-processing penetrate the membrane easily dirt accumulation, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and other ions, resulting in a decline in reverse osmosis function; some membranes such as polyamide, easy to chlorine and chloramines destruction, have activated carbon prior to the reverse osmosis membrane and pre-processing softening, etc.. Reverse osmosis although the price is high, because the reverse osmosis membrane pore size of about l0A below, it can be ruled out bacteria, viruses and pyrogen even a variety of solubility ions, so the best preparations for this channel steps in preparation for the release water of hemodialysis analysis .
Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, but also use a semi-permeable membrane, but it can not control the removal of ions, because the membrane pore size is larger, about 10-200A between. The only rule out the bacteria, viruses, pyrogens and particles, soluble ions can not be filtered. Ultrafiltration main role is to act as reverse osmosis pre-treatment to prevent bacterial contamination of reverse osmosis membrane. It can also be used to prevent the final step in the water treatment upstream of the water in the pipeline bacterial contamination. The general is the use of the feed water pressure and water pressure differential to determine more than membrane similar to activated carbon, usually based on the thrust to remove the attachment of impurities on.
Distillation method is ancient, it is also effective water treatment method, it can remove any non-volatile impurities, but can not rule out the possibility of volatile pollutants, it takes a lot of storage tank to store the storage tank and pipeline pollution, the hemodialysis water not this way.
UV disinfection is often used one of its bactericidal mechanism of destruction of the bacterial nucleic acid genetic material of life, making it unable to multiply one of the most significant response to nucleic acid molecules within the pyrimidine base into a fit (dimer) . General is the use of low-pressure mercury discharge lamp (germicidal lamp) Artificial 253.7nm wavelength ultraviolet energy. The same principle with fluorescent UV germicidal lamp, but the tube internally coated with fluorescent material, the material of the lamp is the UV penetration rate of quartz glass. General ultraviolet irradiation device in accordance with the zoning type, immersion type and flowing type.
Water Treatment UV germicidal lamp is placed in the ultraviolet light used in the hemodialysis dilution water pipeline between the storage tank to the dialysis machine, is all dialysis water before use should accept the first UV irradiation to achieve complete sterilization effect. On the UV sensitivity is green pus bacteria, E. coli; the contrary, tolerance is the Bacillus subtilis spore body. Because the UV disinfection security, economic, less selective strains, water quality will not change, so in recent years has been widely using this method, such as drinking water on board often use this disinfection. Water according to Athenagoras bacteria, Basra, Salmonella, and so kill, sneaked into the water 360 degrees sterilization efficacy equal to three times the surface germicidal lamp. Can eliminate the water Paul algae, the effect is significant, easy to use, UV germicidal lamp for: filters of various sizes fisheries, water treatment, large and small pond, swimming pool, spa. The bactericidal efficiency of up to 99% to 99.99%.
UV water treatment technology – sterilization
UV sterilization using 254 nm wavelength UV light. Wavelength ultraviolet light, even in a small amount of ultraviolet light projected dose, can also destroy the life of a cell core – DNA, thus preventing cell regeneration, and loss of regenerative ability of the bacteria harmless, so as to achieve the effect of sterilization. Like all other UV applications, the scale of such a system depends on the intensity of ultraviolet radiation (irradiation intensity and power) and contact time (water, liquid, or air exposure to ultraviolet light, the length of time).
UV water treatment technology – to eliminate ozone-
In industrial production, ozone is often used to disinfect and purify water. However, ozone has strong oxidation ability, the water remaining ozone is not to be removed will be likely to have an impact on the next process, therefore, usually ozone-treated water before entering the main process flow must be water remaining ozone to get rid of. 254 nm wavelength ultraviolet light for the destruction of residual ozone is very effective, it can decompose the ozone into oxygen. Although the different systems of different sizes, but generally speaking, a typical ozone-UV radiation dose required to eliminate system is about three times that of a conventional sterilization systems.
UV water treatment technology – to reduce the total organic carbon
In many high-tech and laboratory devices, organic matter will prevent the production of high purity water. There are many ways to the organic matter removed from the water, the more commonly used methods include the use of activated carbon and reverse osmosis. Shorter wavelength ultraviolet (185 nm) can also effectively reduce the total organic carbon. The shorter wavelengths of ultraviolet light has more energy, so the decomposition of organic matter. UV oxidation of organic reaction process is very complex, UV water treatment technology whose main principle is a strong oxidizing ability of free hydroxide, oxidation of organic matter into water and carbon dioxide. And ozone removal system, this degradation of organic carbon, UV ultraviolet radiation dose is three to four times that of the conventional disinfection systems.
UV water treatment technology – the degradation of chlorine-related books in the municipal water treatment and water systems, chlorination is necessary. However, in the industrial production process, in order to avoid the adverse effects of the product to remove the residual chlorine is often necessary pre-treatment. The base of the method to eliminate chlorine activated carbon bed, and chemical treatment. The disadvantage of activated carbon water treatment is that it needs to continue to regenerate, but often encounter the problem of bacteria. 185 nm and 254 nm wavelengths of ultraviolet light have been shown to effectively destroy the chemical bonds of chlorine and chloramines. Although the need for tremendous UV energy can play a role, but without the advantages of UV water treatment technology in this method are added to the water, any medication, do not need to store chemicals, easy to maintain, but at the same time there are sterilization and removal of the role of organic matter.
Biochemical water treatment method to use the nature Cunsheng variety of bacterial microorganisms, decomposition of organic matter in wastewater into harmless substances, so that the wastewater will be purified. Biochemical water treatment methods can be divided into the activated sludge, biofilm, biological oxidation tower, land treatment systems, anaerobic water treatment method.
Biochemical process of water treatment method:
The raw water → grille → adjustment Pool → contact oxidation pond → precipitation to → Filter → disinfected → water.
An activated sludge treatment method
(1) diffused aeration: the drainage aeration, aeration fan and compressed air will continue to drum into the waste water and water dissolved oxygen, decomposition of organic matter in water to maintain the microbial life activities, in order to achieve purifying effect of water treatment.
(2) mechanical aeration: surface aeration, the use of mechanical impeller installed in the aeration tanks rotation, churning the water, so that the oxygen in the air dissolved in water for microbial life activities, the biochemical role of water treatment in order to achieve purification effect.
(3) The pure oxygen aeration: diffused aeration method to the water blown into pure oxygen in order to improve the efficiency of oxygenation, thus speeding up the purification speed of the water treatment.
2 biofilms water treatment methods
(1) biological filter: wastewater flow through the surface of the filter biofilm material exchange between both sides and biochemical effects, the degradation of organic matter in the wastewater to reach the water treatment purification purposes.
(2) rotating biological contactors: fixed in a horizontal axis on the number of spacing close to the disc, constantly rotating disk surface layer of biofilm growth, in order to achieve the water purification effect.
(3) biological contact oxidation: for microbial habitat attached to the filler are all immersed in the wastewater, and machinery and equipment to the wastewater charge into the air, so that the degradation of organic matter in waste water, to purify the wastewater.
3, the land treatment system (1) Land percolation: the use of microorganisms and plant roots in the soil membrane purification ability of pollutants to the sewage treatment, sewage water, fertilizer for crops, pasture and tree growth.
(2) wastewater irrigation: The main purpose of this method of water treatment for irrigation in order to make full use of purified sewage.
4, anaerobic water treatment method: the use of anaerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter in the sewage to reach the water purification purposes, while producing methane gas, carbon dioxide and other gases.
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Penetration is – looking for a new water treatment desalination technology
Is penetration as a potential water purification and desalination of new technologies, the world is its multi-angle, deep-level theoretical research and practical exploration. The penetration and reverse osmosis is a pair of mutually inverse method. Abroad in 1976, the original attempt to have liquid – liquid system, the domestic in 1992, invented the forward penetration of the liquid – solid system (non-pressure) adsorption the penetration Desalination (CN92110710.2). Until about 10 years later, again to follow the international trend began to imitate the copy of the standard mode, the 2008 synthesis report.
With the rapid development of science and technology, driven by pressure reverse osmosis membrane technology (RO) membrane, the membrane group of devices, equipment and processes have a larger innovation and improvement, but it was also increasingly aware of RO technology in energy saving desalination to water treatment books talk about the limitations of the field of environmental protection, the RO technology can be considered close to the pinnacle of development. Therefore, recent years have been carried out the study of “forward-permeable membrane separation technology (FO), and have achieved certain results, has been applied in the field of desalination, sewage treatment, food processing, pharmaceutical, in particular” pressure delay the penetration (FRO) water power generation is a promising clean renewable energy development and technology J. Domestic concern forward-permeable membrane separation technology little research and papers are not. Although the last century, the 1990s, China has been the creative invention of “non-pressurized adsorption penetration desalination” (CN92110710.2).
Forward diffusion separation technology have long been applied. Long ago, people on the use of salt in the long term storage of food, because in most of the high-salt environment of bacteria, fungi and pathogens due to infiltration and dehydration death or temporary loss of activity. Today, people have begun to use the forward-permeable membrane separation technology for seawater desalination industrial wastewater treatment, garbage penetration of liquid handling; food industry, beverage concentrate the use of forward-permeable membrane separation in the laboratory; emergency life support system use Forward-permeable membrane separation technology system to take fresh water. Recently with the development of materials science, positive infiltration technique has been applied to drug control of the body’s release.
Non-pressurized adsorption and penetration of seawater desalination method, or referred to as “forward penetration method, let the water through the porous membrane forward penetration into even more than the sea of a super-absorbent sorbent or salt solution or solids do not need to outside pressure, the evaporation of the solution in the special salt “extract” is easy, do not need to add too much heat (heating than with the reverse osmosis pressure energy?) Points the direction of the solid salt, liquid salt. The solid salt solution adsorption energy consumption and smaller.
Desalination technology: non-pressurized adsorption penetration the the desalination Act (CN92110710.2) 1992: the last century the invention of the 1990s, Deng Yu, “Chemical Abstracts” included.
The other two methods in the film structure to have the innovation and improvement:
Carbon Nanotube Films
To do with carbon nanotube thin film holes, single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube film compared with the pure single-walled carbon nanotubes or multi-walled carbon nanotubes consisting of carbon nanotubes strength – weight ratio, modulus of elasticity – weight ratio and stiffness were increased by 1.6 times, 1.4 times and 2.4 times.
Holes of the film use to guide the water molecules to form the protein through the cell membranes of living cells.
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Wild water treatment mode
Water on the field is not to deal with after drinking, everyone is everyone’s ideas. Some people think that the field off the beaten track, that what pollution, drinking nothing. In fact, as long as it is to our amateur, but also what the real pollution? In fact, even without the pollution, does not mean that the water does not have viruses, bacteria, or a variety of hazardous substances. Conditions permit, be able to handle what is still the best. The way of water treatment, is to boil, boil water purification drugs and filter This is the most practical, most effective means. The disadvantage is a waste of fuel, and more time-consuming. Use water purification tablets to be regarded as to the way of the chemical purification, most use of chlorine and iodine. The mainstream market with iodine. Such as the above picture, the white bottle of iodine. Iodine, save the need to pay attention to dark, to avoid the tide. The advantages of the use of water purification tablets is cheap, convenient and lightweight. Time-consuming, generally by adding water purification tablets after about 20 minutes to drink. The disadvantage is that one odor heterochromatic. This can be through post-processing look to solve, such as the above bottle of yellow pills, is used in addition to taste. Or add a little Guozhen what. Second, there is a virus that can not be removed, cryptosporidium, which is the most common parasite of the water. Easily lead to allergies, and certain foods or utensils from a chemical reaction. In general, water purification tablets because of its lightweight, inexpensive, small, or have a large market. Should be noted that the use must be at least 20 minutes, the second is not to be used continuously for more than one week. Purifying filter, which has two categories, filters and filter purifiers. The main difference is that the filter filtered to remove bacteria and parasites. Seoul filter purifier can remove bacteria and parasites, but also remove the virus. (Based on REI’s classification) filters filter purifier is a chemical way out on the basis of the filter, virus, such as iodized, so it has the disadvantage of clean water in front of the chemical water purification tablets . Posted above, this is known as a water purifier only a no chemical way to remove viruses. Using the immediate benefits of purification and filtration devices is you can drink water, almost no need to wait, and almost the safest water purification (using filter purifier it). The disadvantage is that expensive, there is little less than $ 60, the latter costs are also high, the filter also needs to spend money. Bulky, heavy, and almost always more than 1 lbs. Use, require frequent maintenance, easy to plug. Are three ways to have their own strengths, how to choose is everyone’s point of view.
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Water treatment equipment
The water treatment equipment by category can be divided into a sewage treatment equipment, the original water treatment equipment, water purification equipment, filtration equipment several categories. Water treatment equipment like the following: automatic dosing equipment, automatic softener, mechanical filters, reverse osmosis equipment, water equipment, ultra-pure water equipment, hollow fiber ultrafiltration device, ion exchange, mixed bed polishing mixed bed EDI electric desalting system installations, factories and enterprises in drinking water equipment, bag filters, ozone sterilizing equipment, owned by the Richland processor, integrated water processor of the full effect, physico-chemical treatment unit, materialized the full integrated water processor, permanent magnet processor the cyclone desander, quartz sand filter, activated carbon filter, precision filter, tanks, self-cleaning disinfection, UV water treatment device, and efficient decontamination filters, hand brush filter, self cleaning brush filters, radio frequency water filters, next to the stream processor, multi-function electronic cleaning, replenishment unit at constant pressure, constant pressure to supply water dosing unit, no negative pressure frequency conversion water supply device, parsing the deaerator, vacuum degassing in addition to oxygen machine, low thermal deaerator, sealed condensate recovery, copper and silver ion sterilization, in addition to iron and manganese filtration equipment, yellow rust water filter, fiber filter, efficient fiber ball filter, ceramic membrane filter efficient chemical oil, a swimming pool circulating water treatment equipment, reverse osmosis equipment, landscape water integrated water purification units, water treatment equipment, industrial water treatment equipment, sewage treatment equipment, are all widely used in water treatment equipment which domestic industries.
Shenzhen Angel Drinking Water Equipment Company was founded in 1996, is one of the leading manufacturers of drinking water treatment equipment in China. We have been dedicated to be the best supplier in world for the water treatment system and water bottling machine.We are a member of the US water quality association. We provide over 70 types of products, including water treatment equipment, water bottling equipment, water filling machine, shrink wrap packaging machines, and more. Our company technicians and engineers are proficient in design, electrical apparatuses, automated machinery, microcomputers, etc., and we have a team of 52 experienced technicians for installation and maintenance, which helps ensure the high quality of our products and top-ranking service as well.
A water softener principle and function: based on the principle of ion exchange, the use of Na + exchange of Mg2 + Ca2 +, the hardness of the water to reduce to below 70 mg / l as soft water, the main function of this water treatment equipment eliminate the water alkaline, scale.
The advantages and disadvantages of the two water softeners water treatment equipment:
Advantages: get rid of the scale, the effect of alkaline water, while the flow is basically without reducing water pressure. Water water softener water treatment equipment, the cleaning ability is exceptionally strong, laundry, shower, skin care effect; can reduce energy consumption. Also save detergent down, low housework strength. The water softener water treatment equipment produced by the most suitable as living water.
Disadvantages: water softeners, water treatment equipment can not get rid of bacteria, viruses, organic matter, can not be directly consumed; regeneration salt-wasting; and produce a certain amount of wastewater.
A principle and function of the water machine: PP cotton, activated carbon and RO membrane filter, the filter five or five more, most of which is the core of the RO membrane, RO membrane is the highest filter of filtering accuracy. System out of the water is pure water, and drink directly.
(2) Water Purifier advantages and disadvantages of water treatment equipment:
Advantages: pure water machine water treatment equipment, filtration precision, suitable for a variety of water quality, purified water is pure water, good taste, without any impurities.
Disadvantages: less water daily system of pure water machine water treatment equipment, only to solve the drinking and cooking; the first three filter service life is short, you need to replace the filter on a regular basis; not suitable for long-term as a direct drinking water, especially children and the elderly even more inappropriate for long-term drinking of purified water.
Ultrafiltration machine is a mainstream product in the water purifier water treatment equipment, high precision, good purification effect, long life filter and automatic cleaning of the filter.
A water purifier principle and function: 0.01-micron membrane separation technology, can effectively eliminate the water sediment, rust, suspended solids, colloids, bacteria, viruses, organic molecules and other harmful substances.
(2) water purifier water treatment equipment merits and demerits:
Advantages: water purifier water treatment equipment, filtration precision is high; purify the water close to the mineral water directly to drink; flow rate; filter to use long service life; automatic cleaning filter; do not need electricity; do not waste water.
Disadvantages: water purifier, water treatment equipment eliminate the scale, alkaline water is less effective, applicable to the below average hardness areas; single ultrafiltration machines can not completely remove the water odor, water quality in poor taste; too much trouble for the core, can not completely remove the heavy metals in water. .
Nanofiltration membrane machine
Nanofiltration membrane water treatment machines is slightly loose nanofiltration membrane for the main components, structure, similar to the reverse osmosis membrane water treatment machines, nanofiltration is charged membrane electrical adsorption and electrical properties of the F ions partial removal, and has satisfied dense aperture, large molecules can not pass the water treatment equipment, free water molecules in part by NaCl part through, calcium ion, magnesium ion, less part of the pass.
Selected the three principles of water treatment equipment
One of the criteria: qualifications.
Health supervision of the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China clearly Published: Drinking Water Quality Supervision and Administration Article 21 clearly pointed out:
Therefore, all health permits issued by the Ministry of Health involves the products belong to the ‘driving without a license’ is not protected by law.
Specific inquiry approach Come the health administrative licensing public inquiries
Two standards: material.
The modern decoration waterway transformation is to buy a pipe, the pipe looking for a good installation is finished to make a pressure to try the water. Why? Afraid of running water pictures. Shuihuowuqing, which is a crucial thing.
So I chose to look at things in the second parts of the water treatment equipment is the tank material.
Standard three: set function.
Select water treatment equipment must first clear their own purposes, the first big concept that you want to clean water or demineralized water. Water purification is the removal of water, sediment, impurities, bacteria, heavy metals, chlorine, organic matter, as well as some minerals. The softened water is to remove calcium and magnesium ions, the most direct is to scale.
Demineralized water generally only need a cationic resin can complete the ion exchange removal of calcium and magnesium ions. Softened water to clean the skin, laundry soft and smooth to protect the water heater and faucet, shower was blocked by the scale, the sink is no longer the advantages of water-soaked. But should be noted that, precisely because of its addition to calcium and magnesium in water, long-term consumption of demineralized water will cause the body of calcium and magnesium. , In addition to water hardness therefore on very hard and extremely hard standard, you should use a water softener machine for drinking water treatment equipment. The softener living water treatment equipment is a wise choice.
The purified water is different from the softened water, you need to use many different media integrated use of in order to achieve the desired purification requirements. Each media can play a different purification, how to a reasonable composition with filter from is key.